Nineteen lots went for more than $1 million each, the auction house said in a statement.
They included a brooch with a Ceylon sapphire weighing 60.44 carats, surrounded by diamonds, that went for 1.7 million francs, more than three times its estimate.
The bidding for the Archduke Joseph diamond opened at 8 million Swiss francs but the price swiftly rose amid heated telephone bidding.
Historical diamonds originating in the Golconda mines, virtually exhausted by the 18th century, include the Koh-i-Noor (seen here on the British crown), now in the British crown jewels, and the blue Hope Diamond, part of the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, DC.
"The Archduke Joseph Diamond is the finest and largest perfect Golconda diamond ever to appear at auction. It is comparable in its noble lineage and superb quality to the legendary Koh-i-Noor," Rahul Kadakia, head of Christie's jewellery for the Americas and Switzerland, said in a statement.
Image Courtesy: National Geographic magazine