Billions lost; privacy too
The premature deaths, treatment of the sick for illnesses like diarrhoea, malaria, trachoma and intestinal worms, as well as the time lost due to illness is costing $38.5 billion alone.
A further $10.7 million is lost in "access time", the report said - time spent looking to access a shared toilet or open defecation site compared to having a toilet in one's own home.
Inadequate toilets in schools and work places also incurred losses as women and girls are often absent or refuse to attend due to the indignity of lack of privacy.
Image: Prakesh, a migrant worker takes bath near an open sewer at a slum in Mumbai