The level of productivity of these migration groups was measured by publication output and expressed relative to India’s country average publication output set to one. Analyses showed that incoming scientists (6.6% of the total number of scientists studied) are most productive (1.38 where 1.00 is the average publication output for India), visiting or transitory scientists (23.4%) are almost as productive (1.34), while outgoing scientists (6.0%) are below average in productivity (0.95).
These results can be put into international context by comparison with the UK and China. Both the UK and China display similar patterns as India: all three countries import scientists that are more productive than their country average and they all export scientists that are less productive.
Group size comparative analyses of outgoing scientists revealed: 6.0% for India, 10.0% for UK and 2.1% for China; with productivity levels at 0.95, 0.92 and 0.99 respectively, consistently below country publication average for all three countries.
Group size comparative analyses of incoming scientists revealed: 6.6% for India, 8.5% for UK and 7.1% for China; with productivity levels at 1.38, 1.14 and 1.85 respectively; consistently higher than country publication average for all three countries, and significantly higher for India and China.
Group size comparative analyses of visiting (or transitory) scientists revealed: 23.4% for India, 44.4% for UK and 16.0% for China, with productivity levels at 1.34, 1.24 and 1.22 respectively; again more productive than country publication averages.
Group size comparative analyses of staying scientists in the15 year study period revealed: 64.1% for India, 37.2% for UK and 74.9% for China, with productivity levels 0.75, 0.60 and 0.74 respectively; all significantly below the country averages, with the UK being the least productive.
Further comparing level of mobility (incoming, visiting and outgoing), it was found that mobility is substantially higher for the UK compared to China or India with 62.8% of all scientists from the UK moving around during the 15 year study period, compared to 35.9% for India and 25.1% for China.
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Manik Sethi, Elsevier India, +91 9910225543