's three new underground rail projects.
East Side Access under Grand Central Terminal:
—Brings the Long Island Rail Road to Manhattan's East Side, with 160,000 passengers a day arriving at the new, eight-track Grand Central hub 16 stories below Grand Central Terminal.
—To be completed by 2019.
—Estimated cost is $8.3 million.
No. 7 extension to Manhattan's West Side:
—Links Times Square to the far West Side to attract development to Manhattan's "last frontier" of available land and the Hudson Yards development.
—To open in 2014.
—Estimated cost is $2.1 billion.
Second Avenue Subway on Manhattan's East Side:
—Eases massive congestion on Lexington Avenue subway lines and opens far East Side to commuters.
—First section to open in 2016.
—Estimated cost for first phase is $4.5 billion.