NSE index fell for a fifth successive session on Tuesday and wiped out all gains made so far this month, after the rupee's fall to below the key psychological level of 60 to the dollar hit oil importers such as Hindustan Petroleum.
The rupee fell after the Reserve Bank of India left interest rates unchanged on Tuesday and did not announce any more specific measures to defend the currency after announcing this month steps to drain cash from the financial system.
Lenders such as Yes Bank erased earlier gains in the day to end with losses. Although at first investors reacted with relief the RBI kept interest rates on hold, the rupee's falls have dashed hopes that the central bank will roll back its cash tightening measures any time soon.
Indian policy makers are in a tight spot, needing additional steps to defend the currency, but without resorting to measures that would be seen as too aggressive.
Foreign investors have pulled out a net 63.36 billion rupees ($1.07 billion) from stocks so far this month, making July the second successive month of outflows by foreign investors, regulatory and stock exchange data shows.
"Although RBI is concerned about the economic growth, falling industrial production and poor global economic conditions, currency stabilisation is first on its agenda," said Aneesh Srivastava, chief investment officer at IDBI Federal Life Insurance Co Ltd.
The broader NSE index fell 1.31 percent to 5755.05, its lowest close since June 27.
The main BSE index closed down 1.25 percent at 19,348.34, its lowest since July 10.
Investors are now awaiting the U.S. Federal reserve's statement for hints on when the central bank may begin to scale back its massive bond-buying.
Oil marketing companies Hindustan Petroleum Corp Ltd fell 11.05 percent, while Bharat Petroleum Corp Ltd fell 8.55 after the rupee slumped to a three-week low.
Indian Oil Corp Ltd lost 8.24 percent.
Lenders erased earlier gains, with Yes Bank Ltd falling 4.06 percent and Axis Bank Ltd closing down 0.48 percent.
The NSE banking sub-index is down 12.12 percent so far this month compared with a 1.49 percent fall in the broader NSE as the RBI measures have raised short-term funding costs, while the surge in bond yields are leading to concerns about the value of their debt holdings.
Havells India Ltd slumped 12.67 percent after April-June sales fell short of expectations on lower industrial demand.
GAIL (India) Ltd, fell 3.68 percent after Barclays downgraded the stock to "underweight" and lowered its earnings forecast on weak gas output and higher prices.
Jaiprakash Associates declined 5.03 percent to its lowest level in more than four years.
Morgan Stanley and Citigroup downgraded the debt-laden cement maker on Tuesday on concerns about mounting interest costs, a day after it reported April-June results.
Shares in Dr. Reddy's Laboratories closed down 1.82 percent after its April-June quarter revenue lagged market estimates.
FACTORS TO WATCH
Dollar falls on caution before Fed meeting next week
Oil slips towards $107 on demand worries
Report on easy Fed line leaves dlr at 5-week low
Foreign institutional investor flows
For closing rates of Indian ADRs