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The First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-1782)
1772     Narayan Rao becomes the fifth Peshwa
1775    The Treaty of Surat
1779      Treaty of Wadgaon
1780      Bassein Captured
1781-82      Treaty of Salbai

1772: Narayan Rao becomes the fifth Peshwa

The Marathas were one of the most self-respecting and courageous people of the seventeenth and eighteenth century India. So the English tried to avoid the Marathas and the Marathas also did not clash with the British. But the political pendulum began to swing in the opposite direction with the death of Peshwa Madhav Rao in 1772. Narayan Rao became the fifth Peshwa of the Marathas. His uncle Raghunath Rao (Raghoba) got Narayan killed and declared himself as the Peshwa.

1775: The Treaty of Surat

Raghoba was opposed by the Maratha chieftains under the leadership of Nana Phadnavis who declared Narayan Rao's son Madhav Rao Narayan the Peshwa. This created a rift among the Marathas. Raghunath Rao sought help from the English. The English agreed to help him and concluded with him the The Treaty of Surat on March 7, 1775. According to the treaty the English were to provide 2,500 men and Raghunath was to cede Salsette and Bassein to the English with part of the revenues from Broach and Surat districts.

1779: Treaty of Wadgaon

The army proclaimed Madhav Rao Narayan as the Peshwa. On January 9, the British troops met a large Maratha army at Talegon and were defeated. This shattered the prestige of the British so low that they had to enter into a humiliating Treaty of Wadgaon by which the British had to surrender all the territories acquired by the Company since 1773.

1780: Bassein Captured

Warren Hastings, the Governor-General, adopted strong measures to retrieve the prestige of the Company. He sent a strong force under Colonel Goddard who took possession of Ahmedabad on February 15 and captured Bassein on December 11, 1780.

1781-82: Treaty of Salbai

Warren Hastings sent another force against Mahadaji Sindhia. Captain Popham captured Gwalior on August 3. On February 16, 1781, General Camac defeated Sindhia at Sipri. These victories increased the prestige of the English, who gained Sindhia as an ally to conclude the The Treaty of Salbai on 17 May 1782. The treaty of Salbai assured mutual restitution of each other's territories and guaranteed peace for twenty years.

The treaty was ratified by the Governor-General Warren Hastings in June 1782 and by Nana Phadnavis on 24 February 1783. Another feature of the treaty was that the Company recognised Madhav Rao Narayan as the Peshwa and returned to the Sindhia all his territories west of Yamuna.

After the treaty, the English were freed from the danger of the Marathas and so that could now tackle the problems of the Nizam and Oudh.

Courtesy --- SHAHUL HAMEED

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