In 1974, the Nav Nirman movement was spearheaded by students in Gujarat and led to the ousting of Chief Minister Chimanbhai Patel. Jayaprakash Narayan's Bihar Movement similarly galvanized the masses in that state.
The movement became dangerous when the High Court Allahbad High Court declared Indira Gandhi's Lok Sabha election null and void. Strikes and agitations worried Indira and Emergency was imposed.
When the Emergency was finally called off, it was seen as a triumph of people power.
Similar agitations led to the implementations of the Mandal Commission and the Ramjanmabhoomi movement.
1977. The Opposition.
Till this year, the Opposition was just the Opposition and never came to power. The elections of 1977 changed all that. The Janata Party alliance got a whopping 345 seats in the Lok Sabha.
Even though the JP disintegrated shortly after, it did inspire the BJP, which till date remains the principal Opposition party and the Janata Dal, whose splinter groups still are active in many states.
1980. The Judges.
Another effect of the Emergency was the introduction of Public Interest Litigations. Now any issue of public interest could be taken up by the courts bypassing all the obstacles in the past for such bold moves.
It could also be called a case of direct empowerment of the people through the courts.
After that the courts and government have crossed paths on many an occasion and even the PMO has not been spared.
In Picture: Indira Gandhi delivers a speech on 20 March 1977 to announce her resignation after the defeat of the Congress party in the parliamentary elections. She lost both her post as prime minister and her seat in Parliament.
Image: AFP. Any unauthorized reproduction is prohibited