Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (TNSM, Movement for the Enforcement of Islamic Laws)
Banned on January 15, 2002.
Amir: Maulana Sufi Muhammad
Established in 1989.
Maulana Sufi Muhammad left Jama`at-e-Islami (JI) to start the TNSM.
The Maulana`s philosophy is that islamisation cannot be brought about through Parliamentary democracy. The Supreme Court`s striking down of the Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA) Regulations as unconstitutional in 1994 strengthened the Sufi`s hands. Swat, which was a Khanate, merged with Pakistan in 1969 and PATA regulations replaced existing laws of Swat.
Maulana Sufi Muhammad had been in jail ever since his return from Afghanistan with his supporters in 2002. Awarded life imprisonment for taking hundreds of men across the border to fight for the Taleban against the Americans.
Was released as part of the `peace deal` in April 2008 under the promise that he would not indulge in jihad against Pakistan.
TNSM is currently being run by the AmirÃÂs son-in-law Maulana Fazlullah who runs an unlicensed FM Radio station in Swat.
He is fond of riding horses. His followers are called Black Turbans, by the colour of the turbans they wear. His militant unit is referred to as the Shaheen Commando Force.
The Pakistani Government reached a peace deal with TNSMÃÂs Maulana Fazlullah on May 22, 2007 after which he was allowed to operate the radio station in return for not interfering in Government activities.
Operates primarily in the tribal belt in Swat and the adjoining districts of FATA such as Malakand and Bajaur. The US forces fired a missile at the TNSMÃÂs seminary in Bajaur on October 6, 2006 killing several people.
Demands implementation of Shariah. Directly challenges American forces in Afghanistan.
Supports Taleban and is linked to Al-Qaeda.
Killed PPP Member of NWFP Provincial Assembly Badiuzzaman in 1994.
Responsible for killing 44 Pakistani military cadets at the Punjab regimental Centre in Dargai in November 2006 in response to the October missile attack on the TNSM seminary.
Killed a major and a lieutenant along with two soldiers of the Pakistan army in Malakand on July 6, 2007 in retaliation for action at the Lal Masjid by the Pakistani Army.
Two suicide bombers of TNSM rammed their car into a military truck near Mingora killing 33 Pakistani soldiers. They have also beheaded 10 soldiers.
In Image: Maulana Sufi Muhammad