Some of these words have acquired nuances which are indecipherable to an outsider. According to Ambassador Saran, "Even to this day much of Chinese discourse is conducted through historical analogies, some of which are explicit and well known. Some are artfully coded and the language lends itself easily to innuendo and ambiguity."
India, on the other hand, has a aural or 'oral' culture, where history is handed down orally first, and written down later.
"This difference in civilizational trajectory has its impact on how our two cultures perceive the world around us and interact with one another," he said.
The other important point that he made was that "deception is an integral element of Chinese strategic culture…There is no moral or ethical dimension attached to deception and the Chinese would find it odd being accused of 'betrayal', in particular, if the strategy of deception had worked…"
Image: Chinese Instructor Christine Wang (R) smiles at first graders in Potomac, Maryland 18 November, 2005 during a Chinese Emigrant Program that teaches the Chinese language to school age children.