Prior's enterprising innings ended when he was caught behind off Kumar, who dismissed Stuart Broad lbw with his next delivery.
Pietersen reached his 150 with a boundary to mid-wicket and struck the next delivery over mid-off for another four. Graeme Swann kept him company before he was bowled by Suresh Raina's part-time off-spin for 24.
With only the tail remaining, Pietersen hit Raina for a four followed by the first six of the match and then cracked another boundary to reach his 200 at which stage Andrew Strauss declared. His final 50 runs had taken only 25 balls.
In Image: The Indian team take the field to play England during the 2nd day of the first test match