Clarke, who won the toss and elected to bat on a good batting track, shared a record partnership of 288 with Ponting in Sydney when he hit a brilliant 329 not out.
After the pair had again rescued Australia's innings from 84-3 to stand at 214 at tea, Clarke made a statement two balls into the final session by marching down the pitch to smash a huge six off part-time spinner Virender Sehwag.
The 30-year-old reached the century, his 19th in tests, with a less emphatic stroke and the ball trickled to the boundary at fourth man for his 14th four.
Sehwag had made a promising start as stand-in skipper for the banned Mahendra Singh Dhoni in the morning, keeping the Australians on the back foot and bucking convention by introducing recalled spinner Ravi Ashwin in the fourth over.Image: Australia's Michael Clarke makes a run in their cricket test match against India, in Adelaide, Australia Tuesday, Jan. 24, 2012.
Scorecard | India vs Australia