From minnows, the young Test playing nation (the Islanders played their first Test match on 17th February 1982 against England) has grown in stature - at present, they are second in ICC's Test ranking.
Their battle with India - who have been playing the longest format of the game from 1932 - was supposed to be that of between David and Goliath.
But, in reality, there have been many exciting and evenly matched tussles between the two.
Though the Islanders are yet to win a Test on Indian soil, they have been the superior team in their own den - the only home series they conceded to India was in 1993.
Though India-Sri Lanka on-field rivalry is not as fierce as India-Pakistan or India-Australia, their face-offs have always guaranteed excitement, entertainment and thrill.
As Sri Lanka fights for their maiden series win in India, we revisit ten most invigorating encounters between the two teams:
Text: Parthasarathi Mitra and Shalabh Manocha
Images: AFP and Getty
Gambhir in elite club | Full Coverage: India v Sri Lanka