He achieved the feat on the second day of the second Test match between India and South Africa here at the Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium in Pune.
Kohli surpassed Virender Sehwag in the list for the most number of double hundreds for an Indian batsman. Sehwag had six scores of 200 plus in Test cricket.
The Indian skipper has scored all his double centuries after 2016. With this innings, the batsman has also gone past the 7000 run mark in the longest format of the game.
In the match, the 30-year-old Kohli also surpassed former Australia batsman Don Bradman to record the most number of 150 plus scores as a captain.
Kohli now has 9 scores of 150 plus while captaining India, whereas Bradman had 8 scores of more than 150.
Australia's Michael Clarke, Sri Lanka's Mahela Jayawardene, West Indies' Brian Lara and South Africa's Graeme Smith are next on the list with 7 scores of 150+ each.
The 30-year-old, who is leading his side in the 50th Test match also joined New Zealand's Stephen Fleming, England's Alastair Cook and Australia's Steve Waugh to become only the fourth captain to score a century in his 50th match as captain.
Kohli now also has most runs as an Indian captain. He went past former cricketer Sunil Gavaskar.
He registered his 26th Test century on Friday and as a result, became the first Indian to score 40 hundreds as skipper.
Ricky Ponting has the most international hundreds as a skipper. He had 41 centuries as the captain for Australia in international cricket.
With this knock, the 30-year-old also went past former cricketer Dilip Vengasarkar in the run-scoring charts. Vengasarkar had 6,868 runs to his credit.
Kohli is now at the 53rd position in the all-time list of leading run-scorers in Test cricket.
Earlier this year, Kohli surpassed Dhoni to become the most successful Indian Test captain.
The 30-year-old Kohli had 27 wins to his credit before the second Test match against West Indies, but with the win, Kohli took his tally to 28 wins in the longest format of the game.
The 30-year-old now has 29 wins from 49 matches as Test skipper. MS Dhoni had scripted 27 Test wins from 60 matches.
India had registered a comprehensive 318-run win in the first Test match against Windies and as a result, Kohli had added yet another feather to his cap, becoming the most successful Indian captain in overseas Tests.
Kohli had gone past former captain Sourav Ganguly to achieve the feat.
This was Kohli's 12th overseas Test victory. He broke the record in his 26th match as skipper on foreign soil.
Ganguly had 11 Test wins from 28 matches.
While filing this story, India had reached a score of 497/4.